Contrary to its political conservativism, from an aesthetic point of view, the reign of Carlos IV pursued the renewal initiated by his predecessor, Carlos III. The cultural policy of the two monarchs tended to suppress any revival of baroque tendencies. Accordingly, an academic and neoclassical style defined all new building projects. The Puerta de Alcalá (1778) is a good example of this development.
The adherence to the neoclassical style in Spain, especially under the influence of the Royal Academy of Fine Arts of San Fernando, gave rise to the concept of “good architecture”, whose aesthetic program culminated in the construction of ephemeral architectural projects like those for the Madrid festivities for the proclamation of 1789.
Among the protagonists of the aesthetic revolution of the time we can count the leading figures in art and architecture of the second half of the 18th century in Spain, some of whom were also involved in the creation of ephemeral architectural projects. These protagonists included architects such as Ventura Rodríguez (1717–1785), Pedro Arnal (1735–1805) and Juan de Villanueva (1739–1811), painters such as Francisco Goya (1746–1828), Francisco Bayeu (1734–1795) and Luis Paret y Alcázar (1746–1799) and scenographers such as the brothers Ángel María Tadei (ca. 1765 - ca. 1840) and Antonio María Tadei (active between 1789–1829).